* Indicates that the entry was obtained from the VedaBase glossary.
All other entries were obtained from the krishna.com glossary.

Vedic Sanskrit Glossary - V -

vācāla — a person who can speak according to Vedic authority.

vacasāmṛtena — “By words as sweet as nectar.”

Vahana mandapa — where the mount of the Deity (vahana) such as Lord Viṣṇu carrier's Garuḍa or Śiva's bull Nandi is located.

Vaibhāṣikas — a class of philosophers, akin to the Buddhists, who existed when Lord Kṛṣṇa spoke Bhagavad-gītā and who accept that life is a product of a mature combination of material elements.

Vaidarbhī — the woman who was formerly a man but took birth as a woman in his next life because of too much attachment to woman. Darbha means kuśa grass. In fruitive activities, or karma-kāṇḍīya ceremonies, one requires kuśa grass. Thus vaidarbhī refers to one who takes birth in a family of karma-kāṇḍīya understanding. However, if by karma-kāṇḍa activities one by chance comes in contact with a devotee, as Vaidarbhī did when she married Malayadhvaja, his life becomes successful. He then pursues the devotional service of the Lord. The conditioned soul becomes liberated simply by following the instructions of the bona fide spiritual master.

vaidhi-bhakti — The regulative practice of devotional service.

vaidhi-bhaktisee: Vidhi-bhakti.

vaidūrya-maṇi — a spiritual gem that can display different colors.

vaijayantī — A special garland worn by the Supreme Lord. It is made from flowers of at least five different colors, and it hangs down at least to His knees.

Vaijayantī — a garland containing flowers of five colors and reaching down to the knees. It is worn by Lord Kṛṣṇa.

vaikāli-bhoga — food offered to the Deity at the end of the day.

Vaikuṇṭha lokas — variegated spiritual planets situated in the brahmajyoti.

Vaikuṇṭha — (-loka) Literally, the place free from anxiety. The kingdom of God, full of all opulences and unlimited by time and space.

Vaikuṇṭha — the eternal planets of the spiritual world, the abode of Lord Nārāyaṇa, which lies beyond the coverings of the material universe. Literally, “the place with no anxiety”.

Vaikuṇṭha-dūtas — Messengers of the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha.

Vaikuṇṭha-jagatsee: Vaikuṇṭha lokas above.

Vaikuṇṭha-nātha — Nārāyaṇa, “the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha.”

Vaikuṇṭha-nātha — the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha.

 Vaikuṇṭha-vāsīs — The residents of Vaikuṇṭha.

Vaikuṇṭheśvara — Nārāyaṇa, “the Lord of Vaikuntha.”

vairāgī — a person in the renounced order of life.

vairāgya — Indifference to material attractions.

vairāgya — renunciation; detachment from matter and engagement of the mind in spirit.

Vaiśampāyana — The disciple of Dvaipāyana Vyāsa who narrated the Mahābhārata to King Janamejaya.

Vaiśeṣikāsee: Kaṇāda.

Vaiṣṇava — A devotee of the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu. Since Kṛṣṇa and Viṣṇu are different aspects of the same Supreme Person, devotees of Kṛṣṇa are also Vaiṣṇavas.

Vaiṣṇava — a devotee of the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa.

Vaiṣṇava-aparādha — an offense to the devotee of Kṛṣṇa.

Vaiṣṇava-dharma — the eternal principle of service to the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu.

Vaiṣṇavism — the science of bhakti-yoga, devotional service to Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa.

vaiśya (vaishyas) — member of the mercantile or agricultural class, according to the system of four social orders and four spiritual orders.

vaiśya — A member of the third among the four occupational divisions of the varṇāśrama social system. The vaiśyas engage in agriculture, cow protection, and business.

Vaivasvata Manu — the current Manu, the seventh of fourteen.

Vaivasvata-manvantara — The present period of cyclical universal time, ruled over by Vaivasvata Manu. During the lifetime of Lord Brahmā, which corresponds to the duration of the universe, there are 504,000 Manus.

Vaiyāsakisee: Śukadeva Gosvāmī

Vajra — the great grandson of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He became the king of Mathurā when Lord Kṛṣṇa left this world.

Vajradatta — the son of King Bhagadatta. He fought with Arjuna for the sacrificial horse.

Vāli — name of a monkey who was the son of Indra, the King of heaven, and elder brother of Sugrīva, the monkey king in the epic Rāmāyaṇa.

Vālmīki — The sage who composed the great epic history of Lord Rāmacandra’s life. At first a vicious criminal, Vālmīki became purified by unintentionally chanting the name Rāma.

Vālmīki — the author of the original Rāmāyaṇa.

Vāma — left-wing group of gopīs, who are eager to be jealously angered.

Vāmadeva — a great sage who was a competitor of Gautama Ṛṣi's. He was the secretary of Daśaratha Mahārāja, the father of Lord Rāma.

Vāmana — (-deva) Lord Viṣṇu’s form as a young brāhmaṇa boy, one of the daśa-avatāras, the ten most famous incarnations of the Lord. After begging three steps of land from Bali Daityarāja, Vāmanadeva covered with His first two steps the entire universe, and for the third step Bali offered his own head. Pleased with Bali’s surrender, Lord Vāmana offered to become the guard at Bali’s door.

Vāmanadeva — the Supreme Lord's fifth incarnation as a dwarf brāhmaṇa, to whom Bali Mahārāja surrendered everything. See also: Trivikrama

vana — forest.

vānaprastha — A man or woman in the retired order of life, the third stage of spiritual progress in the varṇāśrama social system. In this order a married man leaves home and travels to the forest and holy places of pilgrimage, either with or without his wife, to prepare himself for full renunciation, sannyāsa.

vānaprastha — retired family life, in which one quits home to cultivate renunciation and travels from holy place to holy place in preparation for the renounced order of life; the third order of Vedic spiritual life.

Vāṇaras — The race of forest monkeys who helped Lord Rāmacandra invade Laṅkā and defeat Rāvaṇa.

vandana — the devotional process of offering prayers to the Lord.

vāṇī — Instructions.

vāṇī — the words of the spiritual master, which exist eternally.

vaṇik — a merchant.

vanilla — the pod of the climbing tropical orchid vanilla planifolia. The vanilla flavouring material is obtained from the dried, cured, partially ripe pods. The white crystalline compound called vanillin, present only in the cured black pods, provides the delicately sweet, rich, Spicy, and persistent aroma which characterises vanilla. Whole vanilla beans are cooked with creams, custards, and sauces in French cuisine. The beans can be washed, dried and re-used. Vanilla sugar and pure vanilla essence are substitutes. Vanilla beans are available at specialty grocers.

vapu — The body; sometimes refers to the physical presence of the spiritual master.

vapu — the physical presence of the spiritual master.

Varadarāja — Deity of Lord Viṣṇu worshipped Kā˝cīpuram.

Varāha Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas. It deals with the transcendental pastimes of the Lord's boar incarnation.

Varāha — (-deva) Lord Viṣṇu’s incarnation as a huge boar, who killed the demon Hiraṇyākṣa and lifted the earth from the depths of the Garbha Ocean.

Varāha — the gigantic boar incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Vārāṇasī — one of the oldest and most famous places of pilgrimage in India; also known as Kāśī and Benares. It is a center of impersonalistic, or Māyāvāda, philosophy. Here is where Lord Caitanya defeated Prakāśānanda Sarasvati, the leading Māyāvādī of his day.

Vāraṇāvata — the place where Duryodhana built the palace of lac. (Ādi Parva in Mahābhārata)

varṇa — In the varṇāśrama social system, the four occupational divisions: brāhmaṇas (teachers and priests), kṣatriyas (rulers and warriors), vaiśyas (businessmen and farmers), and śūdras (workers).

varṇa — one of the four Vedic social-occupational divisions of society, distinguished by quality of work and situation with regard to the modes of nature (guṇas). See also: brāhmaṇa; kṣatriya; vaiśya; śūdra.

varṇa-saṅkara — children conceived without regard for Vedic religious principles; thus, unwanted population.

varṇāśrama — The Vedic social system, consisting of four occupational divisions (varṇas) and four stages of spiritual development (āśramas).

varṇāśrama-dharma — the system of four social and four spiritual orders established in the Vedic scriptures and discussed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā.

Varṣāṇā — The town in which Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī lived during Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes on earth.

vartma-pradarśaka-guru — the one who first gives information about spiritual life.

Varuṇa — The demigod who presides over water and the oceans.

Varuṇa — the demigod in charge of the oceans.

vāsanā — a wish or desire.

Vasanta-rāsa — The anniversary of the rāsa dance Kṛṣṇa held in the spring.

vāsīs — Residents.

Vasiṣṭha — A great sage, one of the mind-born sons of Brahmā, reborn in a later age as a son of Mitra and Varuṇa. He served as priest for Lord Rāmacandra, Indra, Vaivasvata Manu, Ambarīṣa, Hariścandra, Yudhiṣṭhira, and others.

Vasiṣṭha — a great sage who was a rival of Viśvāmitra Muni's. He was the family priest of Mahārāja Daśaratha, the father of Lord Rāmacandra.

Vastra-haraṇa-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s pastime of stealing the gopīs’ clothes.

vastu-gata — the stage of being completely uncontaminated by the material body and mind.

Vasudeva — the father of Kṛṣṇa, and the half-brother of Nanda Mahārāja; the state of pure goodness, which transcends the material modes of nature and in which one can understand the Supreme Lord.

Vasudeva — Kṛṣṇa’s father in Mathurā and Dvārakā. He and his wife Devakī were persecuted by Kaṁmsa for many years before Kṛṣṇa delivered them by killing Kaṁsa.

Vāsudeva — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, son of Vasudeva, and proprietor of everything, material and spiritual.

Vāsudeva — Kṛṣṇa, the son of Vasudeva. Vāsudeva is also the name of Kṛṣṇa’s first expansion outside Vraja, and of the first of the quadruple expansions in Vaikuṇṭha.

vāsudeva-parāyaṇa — one whose desire is fixed on the Supreme Lord.

Vasundharā — a name for mother earth meaning “she who has very fertile soil and unlimited wealth.”

Vasus — A group of eight major demigods born from Kaśyapa and Aditi.

Vasuṣeṇa — a name for Karṇa during his younger years.

Vatsa — (-asura) A demon friend of Kaṁsa’s who entered Vraja in the form of a calf and was killed by Kṛṣṇa.

vātsalya-rasa — the relationship with Kṛṣṇa as His parent.

vātsalya-ratisee: vātsalya-rasa above.

Vatsāsura — a demon who came to Vṛndāvana in the form of a calf to kill Kṛṣṇa but who was instead killed by Him.

Vāyu — The god of the wind, one of the principal demigods administering the universe.

vāyu — air, one of the three major elements of the gross body; the demigod in charge of the wind. He was the father of Bhīma and Hanumān.

Vedasee: Vedas above.

veda-cakṣuḥ — literally, seeing through the eyes of the Vedas.

veda-vāda-rata — one who gives his own explanation of the vedas a smārta; fruitive workers who become entangled in material activities disguised as spiritual activities.

Veda-vyāsa — See Dvaipāyana Vyāsa.

Vedānta — The conclusion of Vedic philosophy.

vedānta — the conclusion of Vedic philosophy; the philosophy of the Vedānta-sūtra of Śrīla Vyāsadeva, containing a conclusive summary of Vedic philosophical knowledge and showing Kṛṣṇa as the goal.

vedānta-darśana — the philosophy of Śrīla Vyāsadeva, which culminates in bhakti-yoga.

Vedānta-sūtra (Brahma-sūtra) — Śrīla Vyāsadeva’s conclusive summary of Vedic philosophical knowledge, written in brief codes. The philosophy of the Absolute Truth, which finds implicit expression in the Vedas and the Upaniṣads, was put into a systematic and more explicit form in the Vedānta-sūtra. All apparent contradictory statements of the vast literature of the Vedas are resolved by the great Vyāsa in this work. In this work there are four divisions 1) reconciliation of all scriptures; 2) the consistent reconciliation of apparently conflicting hymns; 3) the means or process of attaining the goal (spiritual realization); and 4) the object (or desired fruit) achieved by the spiritual process. The Vedānta-sūtra establishes that Godhead exists, that devotion is the means of realizing transcendental love for Godhead, and that this love is the final object of man's endeavors. This book is the textbook of all theistic philosophy, and, as such, many commentators have elaborated on the significance of its conclusions.

Vedānta-sūtra — A concise systematic explanation of the Vedic Upaniṣads. It was written by Dvaipāyana Vyāsa and has been commented on by the impersonalist Śaṅkara and by great Vaiṣṇava ācāryas like Rāmanuja, Madhva, and Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa.

Vedāntavādī — A follower of Vedānta, or one who knows Kṛṣṇa perfectly.

vedāntī — a person who knows Vedānta, that is, who perfectly knows Kṛṣṇa.

Vedas — The original revealed scriptures, eternal like the Supreme Lord and thus in need of no author. Because in Kali-yuga the Vedas are difficult to understand or even study, the Purāṇas and epic histories, especially Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, are essential for gaining access to the teachings of the Vedas.

Vedas — the original Veda was divided into four by Śrīla Vyāsadeva. The four original Vedic scriptures, Saṁhitās (Ṛg, Sāma, Atharva and Yajur) and the 108 Upaniṣads, Mahābhārata, Vedānta-sūtra, etc. The system of eternal wisdom compiled by Śrīla Vyāsadeva, the literary incarnation of the Supreme Lord, for the gradual upliftment of all mankind from the state of bondage to the state of liberation. The word veda literally means “knowledge”, and thus in a wider sense it refers to the whole body of Indian Sanskrit religious literature that is in harmony with the philosophical conclusions found in the original four Vedic Saṁhitās and Upaniṣads. The message of the transcendental realm that has come down to this phenomenal world through the medium of sound is known as the Veda. Being the very words of Godhead Himself, the Vedas have existed from eternity. Lord Kṛṣṇa originally revealed the Vedas to Brahmā, the first soul to appear in the realm of physical nature, and by him they were subsequently made available to other souls through the channel of spiritual disciplic succession.

vedāśraya-nāstikya-vāda — agnosticism under the shelter of Vedic culture.

Vedic culture — life-style based on the tenets of the four original scriptures of India, the Vedas.

Vedic — Pertaining to the Vedas, or more broadly, following or derived from the Vedic authority.

Vedic — pertaining to a culture in which all aspects of human life are under the guidance of the Vedas.

Vena — the demoniac son of King Aṅga and father of King Pṛthu.

Veṅkateśvara — Deity of Lord Viṣṇu worshipped at Tirupati.

Vībhatsu — one of the ten names of Arjuna.

vibhāva — the causes or bases for relishing transcendental mellows.

Vibhinnāṁśa — the separated expansions of the Supreme Lord, the minute living entities, who are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa.

Vibhīṣaṇa — The saintly brother of Rāvaṇa who abandoned Rāvaṇa to join the side of Lord Rāma. After Rāvaṇa’s death, Vibhīṣaṇa was crowned king of Laṅkā.

Vibhīṣaṇa — a grandson of Pulastya Muni and the pious brother of Rāvaṇa. He was a staunch devotee of Lord Rāma, who offered him the kingdom of Śrī Lankā for four yugas. He is one of eight personalities who lives for more than one cycle of four yugas.

vibhu — Great.

Vibhu-ātmā — the Supersoul.

vibhūti — a secondary incarnation indirectly empowered by the Supreme Lord; opulence by which Kṛṣṇa controls the entire material manifestation.

vidagdha — one who is expert in the art of attracting women.

Vidagdha-mādhava — a seven-act play written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī describing the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana.

Vidarbha — an ancient province of old India. Rukmiṇī, the wife of Lord Kṛṣṇa, was the daughter of the King of this province.

vidarbha-rājasiṁha — the best of persons who are expert in fruitive activities.

viddha-bhakti — mixed devotional service.

Videha — the kingdom of Mithilā in India ruled by King Nimi.

Videharāja Nimi — a devotee king, ruler of Videha.

vidhi-bhakti — devotional service under scheduled regulations.

vidhi-mārgasee vidhi-bhakti above

Vidura — The Pāṇḍavas’ uncle who was the son of Dvaipāyana Vyāsa by the maidservant of the deceased Vicitravīrya. Vidura was an incarnation of Yama, who had been cursed to be born a śūdra.

Vidura — the son of Vyāsadeva by a maidservant of Ambalikā and the half brother of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was an incarnation of the great devotee mahājana, Yamarāja, and an uncle of the Pāṇḍavas. A great devotee of Kṛṣṇa who inquired and heard  from Maitreya Muni, as narrated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. He was cursed to become a Śūdra by Māṇḍavya Muni. He was constantly trying to restrain Dhṛtarāṣṭra from mistreating the Pāṇḍavas. In the end when Dhṛtarāṣṭra lost everything Vidura was able to deliver his brother to the path of self-realization.

vidūra-vigatasee: Caṇḍāla

Viduratha — An enemy of Kṛṣṇa’s who attacked Kṛṣṇa to avenge the death of his brother Dantavakra but was quickly felled by the Lord’s Sudarśana disc.

vidyā — knowledge.

Vidyādharas — A class of celestial beings with magical powers.

Vidyādharas — a race of celestial beings who are attendants of Lord Śiva and who possess material mystic knowledge.

Vidyanagara — at the time of cosmic desolution, Lord Matsya preserves the Vedic wisdom.

Vidyanagara — at the time of the cosmic desolution, Lord Matsya preserves the Vedic wisdom.

Vidyāpati — an author of Vaiṣṇava poetry who was particularly admired by Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

vigraha — Lit., “form,” often refers to the temple deity.

Vihara — Buddhist monastery

 VIHE — Vrindavana Institute for Higher Education.

vijara — not subjected to the miseries of old age.

vijātīya — one who is outside devotional service.

Vijaya — See Jaya and Vijaya.

Vijayā-daśamī — the celebration of the conquest of Laṅkā by Lord Rāmacandra.

vijaya-vigraha — Deity forms which are taken out of the temple for processions and other outdoor functions, generally because of their smaller, more manageable size.

Vijayadhvaja Tīrtha — a Vaiṣṇava spiritual master in the line of Madhvācārya. He was a commentator on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

vijighatsa — free from desire for material enjoyment.

vijita-ṣaḍ-guṇa — one who has conquered the six material qualities.

Vijitāśva — the eldest son of King Pṛthu (also known as Antardhāna).

vij˝āna — Practical realization of spiritual knowledge.

vij˝āna — the practical realization of spiritual knowledge.

vij˝ānam — specific knowledge of spirit soul, his constitutional position and his relationship with the Supreme Soul.

vij˝ānamaya — with full knowledge, that is, conscious of the self as different from matter.

vikarma — unauthorized or sinful work, performed against the injunctions of revealed scriptures.

vikarmī — One who works to satisfy his desires without following the regulations of scripture.

Vikarṇa — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was the only one to stand up in defense of Draupadī during the gambling match. He was killed by Bhīma during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

vilāsa — symptoms manifested in a woman’s body when she meets her lover.

Vilāsa-vigrahas — expansions of the Lord who manifest bodily differences.

vimānam — the tower over the sanctum of the deity; an airplane.

vimūḍhas — foolish rascals.

vimukti — Liberation.

vīṇā — The classical Indian lute.

vīṇā — a stringed musical instrument.

Vinatā — Dakṣa’s daughter who married Kaśyapa and gave birth to Garuḍa.

Vinda — a prince of Avanti. He was the bother of Mitravindā, a queen of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He was very envious of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. He was killed along with his brother Anuvinda during the Kurukṣetra war. Both brothers were killed by Arjuna.

Vindhyā — A range of hills that form the natural boundary between northern and southern India.

Vindhyācala — a range of mountains west of the Himālayas. See also: Agastya Muni

vine leaves — the leaves of the grape vine vitis vinifera. The most popular use of vine leaves in vegetarian cookery is to stuff them with aromatic rice. The resultant little parcels are enjoyed in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines as dolma or dolmades. Vine leaves are obtained fresh in countries where grapes grow (leaves from any vine yielding edible grapes are suitable) or purchased preserved in water, salt, and citric acid in jars or plastic pouches from Greek or Middle Eastern grocery stores.

viprasee: brāhmaṇa

vipralambha — ecstasy in separation.

vipralambha-bhāva — The ecstasy of separation from the Supreme Lord. Also called viraha-bhāva.

vipralipsā — the cheating propensity.

vīra-rasa — chivalry, one of the indirect relationships with Kṛṣṇa.

vīra-vrata — fully determined.

Vīrabhadra — the demon created by Lord Śiva to destroy the sacrifice of Mahārāja Dakṣa.

viraha — transcendental bliss in separation from the Lord.

Virajā River — the river that divides the material world from the spiritual world.

virakti — detachment.

Vīrarāghava Ācārya — a Vaiṣṇava spiritual master in the line of Rāmānujācārya, and commentator on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Virāṭ-puruṣa — the universal form of the Supreme Lord as the totality of all material manifestations.

Virāṭ-rupa — the universal form of the Supreme Lord. See also: Viśva-rūpa

Virāṭa — The kingdom where the Pāṇḍavas spent the last years of their exile incognito. Also, the name of its king. King Virāṭa’s daughter, Uttarā, became the wife of Arjuna’s son Abhimanyu and the mother of Parīkṣit.

Virāṭa — the King of the Matsyas. He unknowingly sheltered the Pāṇḍavas during their last year of exile. He took the side of the Pāṇḍavas and was killed by Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

Virocana — A son of Prahlada and the father of Bali. Virocana, though a demon, diligently performed Vedic sacrifices and was famous for his charity to brāhmaṇas.

vīrya — one who has mercy.

viṣāda — moroseness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Viśālā — See Badarikā.

Visarga — the secondary creation by Brahmā.

viśaya — Materialistic activities.

viṣaya — the object of worship; an object of material sense gratification.

viṣaya-taraṅga — the waves of material existence.

viśayī — Materialistic person.

viṣayī — one who is interested only in material sense gratification.

Viśiṣṭādvaita-vāda — the Vaiṣṇava philosophy established by Rāmānujācārya’s Śrī-bhāṣya commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra.

viṣṇoḥ smaraṇa — the devotional process of remembering.

Viṣṇu — The Supreme Lord in His opulent feature as the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha, who expands into countless forms and incarnations.

Viṣṇu — the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His four-armed expansion in Vaikuṇṭha; A plenary expansion of the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Viṣṇu supervises the maintenance of the created universe, and enters into the material universe before creation. He is worshiped by all the demigods and sages, and described throughout the Vedas as the summum bonum of all knowledge — the Absolute Truth.

Viṣṇu-bhaktas — devotees in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Viṣṇu-bhakti — devotional service to Lord Viṣṇu.

Viṣṇu-dharma — one of the eighteen Purāṇas, or Vedic historical scriptures.

Viṣṇu-mantras — Authorized sacred sounds chanted to worship the Supreme Lord.

Viṣṇu-mūrtī — the Deity form of the Lord worshiped in the temple.

Viṣṇu-purana — scripture describing the glories of Lord Viṣṇu.

Viṣṇu-tattva — The original Personality of Godhead’s primary expansions, each of whom is equally God.

Viṣṇu-tattva — a primary expansion of Kṛṣṇa having full status as Godhead. The term applies to primary expansions of the Supreme Lord.

Viṣṇu-tilaka — See Tilaka.

Viṣṇu-yaj˝a — a sacrifice performed for the satisfaction of Lord Viṣṇu.

Viṣṇudūta — The messengers of Lord Viṣṇu who take perfected devotees back to the spiritual world at the time of death.

Viṣṇudūtas — the messengers of Lord Viṣṇu who come to take perfected devotees back to the spiritual world at the time of death, the personal servants of Lord Viṣṇu, they closely resemble If Him in appearance.

Viṣṇuloka — the abode of Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. See also: Vaikuntha

Viṣṇupriyā-devī — the second wife of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, whom He left to accept sannyāsa, the renounced order of life.

Viṣṇurāta — Parīkṣit, who was “protected by Viṣṇu” while still in the womb.

Viśoka — the charioteer of Bhīma.

viśoka — callous to material distress and happiness.

Viśrāma-ghāṭa — (Viśrānti-tīrtha) The main bathing ghāṭa in the city of Mathurā on the river Yamunā. It is famous for being the place where Lord Varāha rested after killing the first demon in the universe, Hiraṇyakṣa.

Visrama-ghata — After Varaha killed Hiranyaksa, He spoke the Adi-varaha-Purana to mother Bhumi (Earth) while relaxing at Visrama-ghata. Thousands of years He rested here after killing Kamsa and dragging his body to shores of the Yamuna.

Visrama-ghata — After Varaha killed Hiranyaksa, He spoke the Adi-varaha-Purana to mother Bhumi (Earth) while relaxing at Visrama-ghata. Thousands of years He rested here after killing Kamsa and dragging his body to shores of the Yamuna.

viśrambha — devotional service devoid of a respectful attitude toward the Lord.

Viśruta — the son begotten by the Pracetās through Māriṣā.

viśuddha-sattva — the spiritual platform of pure goodness.

Viśva-rūpa (viraṭ-rūpa) — the universal form of Lord Kṛṣṇa, as described in the Eleventh Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā.

Viśva-rūpa — God’s form as the universe.

Viśvakarmā — The architect of the demigods.

Viśvakarmā — the architect of the devas or demigods. He built the city of Indraprastha for the Pāṇḍavas at the request of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Viśvakośa — an ancient Sanskrit dictionary.

Viśvambhara — one who maintains the entire universe and who leads all living beings; the name of Lord Caitanya before He entered the renounced order.

Viśvāmitra — A king in the dynasty of the moon-god who, inspired by rivalry with Vasiṣṭha, became a renounced sage.

Viśvāmitra — a prominent sage and rival of Vasiṣṭha Muni.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura — a great ācārya in the Caitanya school of Vaiṣṇavism and the most prominent ācārya after Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura. On the order of his guru he went to Vṛndāvana and by his life's end he had composed twenty-four valuable books on the science of bhakti. He established the Gokulānanda Temple. In his final years he lived at Rādhā-kuṇḍa; he has written commentaries on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī — A prominent Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava acarya in the line of Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura. In the mid seventeenth century he wrote commentaries on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Bhagavad-gītā, and books by followers of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa was his śiksādisciple.

Viśvarūpa — 1. A son of the demigod Tvaṣṭā. To win power to defeat the demons led by Vṛtra, the demigods took Viśvarūpa as their priest. But because he had a secret affinity for the demons and offered them oblations in sacrifice, Indra beheaded him. 2. The elder brother of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Visvarupa — brother of Lord Caitanya, he took sanyassa at an early age; the life-breath of Nimai.

viśvāsa — a government secretary; confidence.

Viśvāvasu — a leader of the Gandharvas, singers in the heavenly planets.

Viśveśvara — The principal deity of Lord Śiva in his holy city of Kāśī. It is located near Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭa.

vitarka — argument, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

vīthī — beginning of a drama consisting of only one scene.

vivāha-yaj˝a — the sacrifice of marriage.

vivarta — illusion; also, sorrow and confusion due to nonfulfillment of material desires.

vivarta-vāda — the erroneous concept; propounded by Śaṅkarācārya, that God is no longer complete after He expands His energies for creation; the Māyāvādī interpretation of the Vedānta-sūtra that the Supreme Lord becomes changed when He expands and that all manifest varieties are unreal.

Vivasvān — The current sun-god. His children include Yamarāja, the river Yamunā, Vaivasvata Manu, and Śanaiścara (the ruler of the planet Saturn).

Vivasvān — the name of the present sun-god, to whom Bhagavad-gītā was instructed at least 120,400,000 years ago.

Viviṁśati — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

viyoga — the stage of separation when the mind is fully absorbed in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa.

Vraja — (-bhūmi) The eternal place of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes with the cowherds, manifest on earth in the district of Mathura.

Vraja — the 168-square-mile (84 krośa) area in the district of Mathurā where five thousand years ago Lord Krṣṇa displayed His pastimes. It is the principal holy place of pilgrimage for all Vaiṣṇavas. It is said in the śāstras that Vraja is the essence and sum total of all holy places. See also: Vṛndāvana.

vraja-bhakti — The pure devotion for Kṛṣṇa of the residents of Vraja.

vraja-bhāva — The ecstatic mood of the devotees of Vraja.

vraja-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes in Vraja.

Vrajabhūmisee: Vṛndāvana

Vrajanātha — Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Vraja.

Vrajavāsī — A resident of Vṛndāvana.

Vrajendra — Nanda Mahārāja, the foster father of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Vrajendra-kumāra — Kṛṣṇa, the child of King Nanda.

Vrajendra-nandana — Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

vrata — Vow.

Vṛddhakṣatra — the father of Jayadratha.

vrīḍā — shame, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Vṛka — (-asura) A demon to whom Lord Śiva granted the boon that any head he touched would at once break to pieces. When Vṛka wanted to try the boon on Lord Śiva, Lord Viṣṇu came in disguise and tricked Vṛka into touching his own head.

Vṛkodara — a name for Bhīmasena meaning “he of the voracious appetite.”

Vṛndā — (-devī) A principal gopī, a direct expansion of Śrīmati Rādhārāṇī. She is the presiding deity of Vṛndāvana forest, and the tulasī plant is her expansion. She and grandmother Paurṇamāsī make all the behind-the-scenes arrangements for Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa’s daily pastimes.

Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura — the incarnation of Vedavyāsa in Lord Caitanya's pastimes and the author of Caitanya-bhagavata, one of the earliest biographies of Lord Caitanya, in which he especially describes Caitanya Mahāprabhu's early pastimes.

Vṛndāvana — (-dhāma) Kṛṣṇa’s most beloved forest in Vraja-bhumi, where He enjoys pastimes with the cowherd boys and the young gopīs; also, the entire district of Vraja.

Vṛndāvana — Kṛṣṇa’s eternal abode, where He fully manifests His quality of sweetness; the village on this earth in which He enacted His childhood pastimes five thousand years ago; the topmost transcendental abode of the Supreme Lord. It is His personal spiritual abode descended to the earthly plane. It is situated on the Western bank of the river Yamunā. He was present on earth about 5,000 years ago. Also see Vraja.

Vṛndavana-candra — Kṛṣṇa, the “moon of Vrindavana.”

Vṛndavana-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes in Vṛndāvana.

Vṛndāvana-vihāra — the pastimes of Vṛndāvana.

Vṛṣaparvā — A demon who fought in the armies of Vṛtra and Bali.

Vṛṣasena — the son of Karṇa. He was considered a Mahārathi. He was killed by Arjuna in the presence of his father Karṇa. (Karṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Vṛṣṇi — a famous king of the Yadu dynasty. Lord Kṛṣṇa took birth in his dynasty.

Vṛṣnis — See Yādavas.

Vṛtra — Vṛtrāsura, a great demon killed by Indra. He was actually the devotee Citraketu, who had been cursed to take a low birth.

Vṛtra — (-asura) A demon who in his past life as King Citraketu was cursed by Pārvatī and so took a demonic birth. Vṛtra led the demons against Indra but at heart was a pure devotee of Lord Viṣṇu. So when Indra killed Vṛtra, Vṛtra was glorified, and Indra had to suffer.

vyabhicārī-bhāvas — the thirty-three transitory bodily symptoms manifest in ecstatic love.

vyādhi — disease, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

vyakta — material creation when it is manifested from the total energy of mahat-tattva.

vyāna-vāyu — one of the internal bodily airs which is controlled by the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system. The vyāna-vāyu acts to shrink and expand.

Vyāsa — (-deva) See Dvaipāyana Vyāsa.

Vyāsasee: Vyāsadeva

Vyāsa-pūjā — Worship of the spiritual master, who represents Śrīla Vyāsadeva, on his appearance day.

Vyāsa-pūjā — worship of the compiler of the Vedas, Vyāsadeva; worship of the bona fide spiritual master as the representative of Vyāsadeva on his appearance day.

Vyāsadeva (Vyāsa) — the literary incarnation of God, and the greatest philosopher of ancient times. The son of Parāśara, and the compiler of the original Vedic scriptures, including the eighteen Purāṇas, Vedānta-sūtra, the Mahābhārata, and the Upaniṣads. He played a very important part in guiding the Pāṇḍavas during crucial times. He gave the vision of the battle of Kurukṣetra to Sa˝jaya so that he could relate it to Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He is still living in this world.

vyāsāsana — “The seat of Vyāsa,” a special seat reserved for the spiritual master, the representative of Vyāsadeva.

Vyāsāsana — the seat of Vyāsa, on which the representative of Vyāsadeva sits.


Krishna and Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra