* Indicates that the entry was obtained from the VedaBase glossary.
All other entries were obtained from the krishna.com glossary.

Vedic Sanskrit Glossary - M -

mad elephant offense — offense against the lotus feet of a Vaiṣṇava.

mada — madness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva; also, intoxication.

Madana — Cupid, the demigod who incites lusty desires in the living beings.

mādana — a category of highly advanced ecstasy in which the lovers meet together and there is kissing and many other symptoms.

Madana-gopāla — Kṛṣṇa, the transcendental Cupid appearing as a young cowherd.

Madana-mohana — the name of Kṛṣṇa which means “He who charms Cupid.”

Madana-mohana-mohinī — Rādhārāṇī, the enchanter of the enchanter of Cupid.

Mādhāisee: Jagāi and Mādhāi

Mādhava — Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu. Also, a famous Deity of Viṣṇu worshiped at Daśaśvamedha-ghāṭa, Prayāga.

Mādhava — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who appeared in the Madhu dynasty.” It is also a name for the Yadu dynasty; also a name of Kṛṣṇa comparing Him to the sweetness of springtime or the sweetness of honey.

Mādhavendra Purī — The spiritual master of Īśvara Purī.

mādhavīHiptage madhablota, a shrubby vine, herald of spring and lover of the mango tree.

Madhu — See Kaiṭabha.

Madhudvit — Lord Viṣṇu, enemy of the demon Madhu.

mādhukarī — a saintly mendicant who takes a little food from each householder’s place like a bee gathering honey; a system of begging adopted by a mendicant.

Madhumaṅgala — A young brāhmaṇa boy who was among Kṛṣṇa’s closest playmates. He was the son of Sāndīpani Muni (Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma’s teacher in Avanti) and the grandson of Paurṇamāsī. When Paurṇamāsī moved to Vraja, Madhumaṇgala came with her.

Madhupati — name of Kṛṣṇa in Dvārakā.

Madhupurī — See Mathurā.

madhura-rasasee:  Mādhurya-rasa. below.

madhuram — Sweet.

madhurya — lit., “sweetness.” Refers to the sweet conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs.

mādhurya-bhaktas — devotees engaged only in conjugal love.

mādhurya-līlā — The sweet conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs.

Mādhurya-līlā — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes of conjugal love with His eternal associates.

mādhurya-rasa — Devotional service to Kṛṣṇa in conjugal love.

mādhurya-rasa — the spiritual relationship in conjugal love which the Supreme Lord and His devotee reciprocate as lovers.

mādhurya-ratisee: Mādhurya-rasa. above.

Madhusūdana — a name of Kṛṣṇa, “killer of the Madhu demon.”

Madhuvana — A sacred forest in Vṛndāvana.

Madhvācārya — The founding ācārya of one of the four Vaiṣṇava sampradāyas in Kali-yuga. He appeared in the thirteenth century as a Karnataka brāhmaṇa, taught a strictly theistic version of Vedānta philosophy, vigorously opposed the Advaita-vāda of Śaṅkarācārya, and established the worship of Śrī Kṛṣṇa at Udupi.

Madhvācārya — a great thirteenth-century Vaiṣṇava spiritual master, who preached the theistic philosophy of pure dualism. The founder of the dvaita school of Vedānta philosophy. He wrote a number of works which refuted the impersonal philosophy of Śaṅkarācārya. He appeared in the 13th century in Udipī, in South India. He took sannyāsa at the age of twelve, traveled all over India and had the personal darśana of Śrīla Vyāsadeva in the Himalayan abode of Badarikāśrama and presented his commentary on Bhagavad-gītā before that venerable sage. He also received a śālagrama-śīla called Aṣṭamūrti from Vyāsa. He was very powerful both physically and intellectualy, and was considered to be an incarnation of Vāyu, the wind god.

madhya-līlā — The pastimes Lord Caitanya performed during the middle part of His manifest presence, while He was traveling throughout India; the portion of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta recounting those pastimes.

Madhya-līlā — the pastimes Lord Caitanya performed during the middle part of His manifest presence, while He was traveling throughout India; the portion of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta recounting those pastimes.

madhyama-adhikārī — A devotee whose advancement in spiritual life is midway between the neophyte (kaniṣṭha) and advanced (uttama) levels.

madhyama-adhikārī — devotee who worships the Lord with firm faith, makes friends with His devotees, preaches to the innocent, and avoids atheists; Madhyama-bhāgavata

Madirā — a wife of Vasudeva.

madirekṣaṇā — refers to one whose eyes are so attractive that one who observes them becomes maddened by her. In other words, madirekṣaṇā means a very beautiful young girl. According to Jīva Gosvāmī, madirekṣaṇā means the personified deity of bhakti. If one is attracted by the bhakti cult, he becomes engaged in the service of the Lord and the spiritual master, and thus his life becomes successful. Vaidarbhī, the woman, became a follower of her husband. As she left her comfortable home for the service of her husband, a serious student of spiritual understanding must give up everything for the service of the spiritual master. As stated by Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādaḥ: ** if one wants actual success in life, he must strictly follow the instructions of the spiritual master. By following such instructions, one is sure to make rapid progress in spiritual life. This statement by Viśvanātha Cakravartī is in pursuance of the following injunction from the Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad  [ŚU 6.23]:

yasya deve parā bhaktir
yathā deve tathā gurau
tasyaite kathitā hy arthāḥ
prakāśante mahātmanaḥ

“Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed.” In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad it is said, ācāryavān puruṣo veda: “One who approaches a bona fide spiritual master can understand everything about spiritual realization.”

Mādrī — the co-wife (with Kuntī) of King Pāṇḍu. She conceived Nakula and Sahadeva from the Aśvinī Kumāra demigods. She entered the fire with her husband.

Magadha — a province of ancient India; also the capital city of King Jarāsandha.

Māgha — The lunar month that usually begins in January and ends in February.

Māgha-melā — a yearly fair held during the month of Māgha at Prayāga for spiritual upliftment.

mahā — A Sanskrit prefix meaning “great” or “large.”

mahā-bhāgavata — A devotee in the highest stage of devotional life.

mahā-bhāgavata — a pure devotee of the Supreme Lord in the highest stage of devotional life. See also: uttama-adhikārī.

mahā-bhāva — The ultimate limit of devotional ecstasy, found only in Śrī Rādhā and some of Her intimate servants. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who was Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the mood of Śrī Rādhā, also displayed such ecstasy.

Mahā-bhāva — the highest stage of love of God.

mahā-bhūta — Any one of the gross elements of material creation (earth, water, fire, air, or ether).

Mahā-dvādaśī — the day after Ekādaśī, celebrated instead of Ekādaśi because of astronomical overlapping. Lord Kṛṣṇa calls it Ekādaśī if a fast is observed on that day.

Mahā-lakṣmī — See Lakṣmī.

Mahā-lakṣmīsee: Lakṣmī

mahā-mahā-prasādam — the remnants of food left by a pure Vaiṣṇava.

mahā-mantra — The great chant for deliverance: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.

Mahā-mantra — the great chanting for deliverance: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare; is the great mantra composed of the principal names of Godhead in their vocative forms. This maha-mantra is found in the Purāṇas and Upaniṣads and is specifically recommended for chanting in this age of Kali as the only means of God realization. Lord Caitanya personally designated it as the mahā-mantra and practically demonstrated the effects of the chanting.

Mahā-māya — See Māya.

Mahā-māyā — the material nature; the external potency of the Supreme Lord, which bewilders the conditioned living entities. She is personified as Durgā-devī; the illusory, material energy of the Supreme Lord.

mahā-paṇḍita — a very learned person.

mahā-prasāda — Food directly from the plate that has been offered to the Supreme Lord. Such food from Lord Jagannātha at Purī is especially known as mahā-prasāda, but Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī uses the term to refer to Kṛṣṇa’s prasāda in general.

mahā-prasādam — sanctified food that consists of remnants from the plate offered directly to Kṛṣṇa in His Deity form.

Mahā-purāṇas — The eighteen major Purāṇas, six for people in each of the three modes of material nature.

mahā-pūrṇa — the highest level of perfection.

Mahā-puruṣa — the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme enjoyer.

mahā-ratha — a powerful warrior who can single-handedly fight against ten thousand others.

mahā-snāna — a vast bath with ghee and water used to bathe the Deity.

Mahā-vadānyāvatāra — Lord Caitanya, the most magnanimous incarnation.

mahā-vākya — A principal Vedic mantra or verse.

mahā-vākya — transcendental sound vibration.

Mahā-varāha — See Varāha.

Mahā-Viṣṇu — The first of the three Puruṣas, incarnations of the Supreme Lord for the creation of the material universe. He lies down in the Causal Ocean on the bed of Ananta Śeṣa and initiates the creation by glancing at His personified material energy, Māya.

Maha-Viṣṇu — the expansion of the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu reclining on Adi-Sesa, from whom all material universes emanate.

Mahābhārata — The epic history of “greater India” composed by Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. One chapter is theBhagavad-gītā.

Mahābhārata — an ancient, Sanskrit, epic history of Bhārata, or India composed by Krṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsadeva, the literary incarnation of Godhead, in 100,000 verses. The essence of all Vedic philosophy, the Bhagavad-gītā, is a part of this great work. Maha-bhārata is a history of the earth from its creation to the great Kurukṣetra war fought between the Kuru and Pāṇdava factions of the Kaurava dynasty, which took place about five thousand years ago. The battle was waged to determine who would be the emperor of the world: the saintly Yudhiṣthira, a Vaiṣṇava king, or the evil-minded Duryodhana, the son of Dhrtarastra.

Mahābhārata-tatparya-nīrṇaya — Madhvācārya’s commentary on the Mahābhārata.

mahābhuta(mahā — great + bhuta — element) the five great material elements: earth, water, fire, air and ether.

Mahādeva — “The great god,” Śiva.

Mahādeva — Lord Śiva

Mahājana — one of the twelve great self-realized souls, authorized agents of the Lord whose duty is to preach the cult of devotional service to the people in general; one who understands the Absolute Truth and throughout his life behaves likes a pure devotee.

mahājanas — “Great persons,” refers to the twelve authorized agents of the Lord whose duty it is to preach the path of devotional service to the people in general.

Mahākāśa — (lit., the greatest sky of all) the space occupied by Goloka Vṛndāvana.

mahal — palace or house.

Mahāprabhu — Supreme master of all masters; refers to Lord Caitanya.

Mahāprabhu — supreme master of all masters; Lord Caitanya.

Mahapuri — one of the pilgrimage citties in India where residence brings salvation. The seven maha-puris are Mathura, Ayodhya, Hardwar, Varanasi, Kanchi, Ujjain, and Dwarka.

Mahāpuruṣa — “The Supreme Person” or “supreme enjoyer,” Lord Viṣṇu. More specifically, an expansion of Mahā-Viṣṇu who resides on the planet of Brahmā.

Mahar — (-loka) The first of the planets where sages reside above the heaven of Indra. The residents of Maharloka are sages who have not renounced family life.

Mahārāja — “Great ruler,” a term of address to kings and renounced holy men.

Mahārāja — king, ruler, sannyasi (renounced order of life)

Mahārāṇī — wife of the king or the ruler in her own right.

Mahāraurava — a hell wherein animal killers are sent.

maharloka — a heavenly planet.

mahat-tattva — The first transformation of primordial nature. It contains all the other elements in their subtle, unmanifest forms.

mahat-tattva — the original, undifferentiated form of the total material energy, from which the material world is manifested.

mahātmā — A “great soul,” a saint who has broad intelligence by dint of his full Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

mahātmā — a “great soul” an exalted devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa, free from material contamination. one who factually understands that Kṛṣṇa is everything and who therefore surrenders unto Him.

Mahāvana — One of the twelve main forests of Vraja. See Gokula.

Mahāyoga — See Yogamāya.

Mahendra — See Indra.

Mahendra — Lord Indra, the King of heaven.

Maheśa — “The great lord,” Śiva.

Maheśvara — the supreme proprietor. See: Śiva

Mahiṣa — buffalo demon who was killed by Durgā.

Mahodara — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

maidan — open square or park.

Maināka — this mountain was the son of Himavan during the Satya-yuga, when mountains had wings. Its wings were clipped, and it was placed in the ocean by Indra.

Maitreya Muni — the great sage who spoke Śrīmād-Bhagāvātām to Vidura, who gave advice to the Pāṇḍavas during their exile in the forest. He cursed Duryodhana that Bhīma would fulfill his vow.

Maitreya — A sage who was a friend of Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. Maitreya heard Kṛṣṇa’s discussions with Uddhava just before Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance and passed on what he learned to Vidura. The conversations of Maitreya and Vidura make up the Third and Fourth Cantos of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

makara — A celestial species of crocodile, considered auspicious. Also, the sign of the zodiac corresponding to the Greek Capricorn.

Makara-dhvaja — “The sex-god is called Makara-dhvaja.” SB 3.28.32. See also: Cupid

mālā — chanting with beads.

mala — string of 108 beads made from Tulsasi wood used for chanting or japa.

mālatīJasminium grandiflorum, a twining shrub with fragrant white flowers.

malayadhvaja — a nice devotee who is like sandalwood.

malina-aṅgatā — the ecstatic symptom of uncleanliness.

mallikā — a sweet-scented flower of Vṛndāvana.

Mālyavān — a great demon.

mamatā — an intimate attachment between the servitor and the served in devotional service.

mānā — standard of measurement for rice and grain.

māna — when the lover feels novel sweetness by exchanging hearty loving words but wishes to hide his feelings by crooked means.

Mānasa-gaṅgā — a sacred river that flows in Vṛndāvana along part of the base of Govardhana Hill.

Mānasa-sarovara — A sacred lake on Kailāsa Mountain. Indra tried to hide within the lake from his sins, and Ambarīṣa meditated by its shore. The lotuses growing in this lake are prized even by the residents of heaven.

Mānasarovara — a lake north of India, near Mount Kailāsa.

Mānasī-gaṅga — The most sacred of lakes, located at the midpoint of Govardhana Hill. Kṛṣṇa created it from His mind and filled it with the waters of the Gaṅgā and all other holy rivers and lakes to dissuade His father from leaving Vraja to go on pilgrimage.

maṇḍala — A district, a subdivision of a province.

mandapam (mandapa) — halls of the temple, often with many pillars. They are one or more entrance porches or halls that lead to the vimana or inner sanctum.

mandara — The flower of the coral tree, one of the five special trees of heaven.

Mandarācala — the mountain used by the demigods and demons to churn the ocean of milk and thus extract nectar.

mandir — temple

mandira — Temple.

maṅgala-ārati — The first Deity worship of the day, performed approximately an hour and a half before sunrise.

maṅgala-arati — the daily predawn worship ceremony honoring the Deity of the Supreme Lord.

maṅgalācaraṇa — Verses an author composes as an invocation with which to begin a book. The three aims of such an invocation are to offer respects to one’s worshipable Deity, to offer blessings to the readers, and to set forth the topic of the book.

mango powder(see Amchoor)

Maṇikarṇikā — One of the principal bathing ghāṭas on the Gaṅga in Kāśī.

maṇimā — an address used for respectable persons in Orissa.

Maṇimān — a Yakṣa who was killed by Bhīmasena. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

manīṣā — intelligence.

ma˝jarī — An intimate gopī maidservant of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

ma˝jarī — the small, purplish flowers of the tulasī plant. Ma˝jarīs, along with tulasī leaves, are offered only to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They must be fresh.

Manjughoṣā — a society lady of the heavenly planets.

manomaya — (consciousness) absorbed in mental activity.

mantra — A short expression in sacred language chanted to purify the mind and fulfill various aspirations.

mantra — (man — mind + tra — deliverance) a pure sound vibration when repeated over and over delivers the mind from its material inclinations and illusion. A transcendental sound or Vedic hymn, a prayer or chant.

mantra-japa — Chanting of a mantra quietly to oneself.

Manu — Svayambhuva Manu, a demigod son of Brahmā who is the original father and lawgiver of the human race; also, a generic name for any of the fourteen universal rulers also known as Manvantara-avataras, who appear in each day of Lord Brahmā. Their names are 1) Svayambhuva; 2) Svārociṣa; 3) Uttama; 4) Tāmasa; 5) Raivata; 6) Cākṣusa; 7) Vaivasvata; 8) Savarṇi; 9) Dakṣa-sāvarṇi; 10) Brahma-sāvarṇi; 11) Dharma-sāvarṇi; 12) Rudra-sāvarṇi; 13) Deva-sāvarni; 14) Indra-sāvarṇi.

Manu-saṁhitā — the scriptural lawbook for mankind, written by Manu, the administrative demigod, and father of mankind.

Manus — The original progenitors and lawgivers of the human race. In each day of Brahmā there are fourteen Manus. The current Manu is Vaivasvata, son of the sun-god Vivasvān.

manuṣya-gaṇa — mankind.

manvantara — The period of a Manu’s reign, lasting 306, 720,000 years.

manvantara — the duration of each Manu’ s reign

manvantara-avatāra — Special incarnations of the Supreme Lord who appear in each manvantara to assist Indra and the other demigods in subduing demons and maintaining the principles of religion.

Manvantara-avatāras — the incarnations of the Supreme Lord who appear during the reign of each Manu (306,720,000 years); used as a standard division of history.

marakaṭa — Emerald.

marakata-maṇi — an emerald.

Maratha — ruling group from Maharashtra in the 16th and 17th centuries.

mārga — Path.

mārga — road.

Marīci — one of the great sages born directly from Lord Brahmā.

Māriṣā — the society girl of the heavenly planets sent by Indra to seduce the sage Kaṇḍu.

marjoram — one of the most important of all kitchen herbs, it is used in virtually every type of European cuisine, although not very much used in Eastern cooking. Marjoram (Majorana hortensis) has a delicate, pleasant, sweet flavour with a slightly bitter, aromatic undertone. It is generally used in its dried form, for soup, stews, vegetable dishes, and sauces. As a fresh herb, it is delicious in salads. Dried marjoram is available at any supermarket or grocer. Fresh marjoram is occasionally available at produce markets and at good greengrocers.

Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa — the Purāṇa of Mārkaṇḍeya Ṛṣi.

Mārkaṇḍeya Ṛṣi — an ancient sage who narrated the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa, which, describes the nature of Krṣṇa. He beheld the Lord lying down on a Banyan leaf during the period of universal devastation

markaṭa-vairāgya — false renunciation; literally, the renunciation of a monkey.

martya — a description of Kṛṣṇa indicating that because of His affection for His devotees He appears like an ordinary human being.

Martya-loka — the “world of death,” the earth.

Martyaloka — “The world of mortals,” the lower parts of the universe, below Svarga. Demigods are also mortal, but they are called “immortals” because their span of life is much longer than that of humans.

Marudloka — the planet of the Maruts, associates of King Indra.

Maruts — The forty-nine expansions of the wind-god, who are friends of Indra.

Maruts — the demigod associates of King Indra, the gods of the air. They number forty-nine and are sons of Diti.

maryādā-laṅghana — a violation of the regulative principles.

masala — a combination of herbs, spices, or seasonings used in Indian cuisine. Some masalas, like Bengali panch puran, contain whole spices. Others, like chat masala, garam masala, sambar masala, or rasam powder, contain numerous powdered spices combined together. For details on masalas see individual entries.

masjīd — a mosque.

Mātā Śacī — the mother of Lord Śri Caitanya Mahāprabhu and the wife of Nilāmbara Cakravartī.

mata — mother.

mātājī — Mother.

Mātali — the charioteer of Indra. He took Arjuna to the heavenly planets. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

maṭh — A religious institution.

Maṭha — a temple of the Lord with an attached residence or āśrama for brahmacārīs (celibate students) and sannyāsīs (renunciants) to live; monastery.

Mathurā — (-dhāma, -maṇḍala, -purī) The eternal abode in which Kṛṣṇa manifests Himself as the Lord of the Yādavas. During His descent to earth, Kṛṣṇa reclaimed Mathurā for the Yādavas by killing Kaṁsa and installing Ugrasena on the throne. Kṛṣṇa resided in Mathurā for thirty-three years before relocating the Yādavas to Dvārakā.

Mathurā — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s abode, and birth place, surrounding Vṛndāvana. At the end of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s manifest līlā, Vajra, His grandson, was put in charge of this sacred city. Lord Krsṇa displayed His pastimes after leaving Vṛndāvana. It is also the name of the district where Vraja (Vṛndāvana) is located.

Mathurānātha — Kṛṣṇa, “the Lord of Mathurā.”

mati — attention, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

matiar — peas.

mātsarya — envy.

Matsya — Lord Viṣṇu’s form as a huge fish, one of the daśa-avatāras, the ten most famous incarnations of the Lord. Matsya appeared at the end of the Cākṣuṣa manvantara to save the next Manu, the seven sages, and the Vedas from the universal deluge.

Matsya — the fish incarnation of the Supreme Lord.

maugdhya — assuming the position of not knowing things although everything is known.

mauna — Silence.

Mauṣala-līlā — the pastimes of the annihilation of the Yadu dynasty and Lord Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance.

Maya Dānava — the architect of the demons.

māyā — The Supreme Lord’s inferior, material energy. She creates and controls the material world, keeping its inhabitants in countless varieties of illusion.

māyā — illusion; an energy of Krṣna's which deludes the living entity into forgetfulness of the Supreme Lord. That which is not, unreality, deception, forgetfulness, material illusion. Under illusion a man thinks he can be happy in this temporary material world. The nature of the material world is that the more a man tries to exploit the material situation, the more he is bound by māyā's complexities.

 Maya — The chief architect of the demons. When Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna saved him from the fire in the Khāṇḍava forest, he became their friend and built a wonderful assembly hall for the Pāṇḍavas at Indraprastha.

māyā-śaktisee: māyā.

māyā-sukha — material happiness, which is illusory and temporary.

māyā-vaśa — subjected to the influence of the illusory energy.

Māyādevī — See Māyā.

Māyādhīśa — the Lord of all energy.

Māyāpur — A town in West Bengal, India, where Lord Caitanya appeared.

Māyāvāda — The impersonal philosophy of “oneness,” which holds that the Absolute Truth, one without a second, is formless and changeless, and that whatever has name and form is an illusion falsely imposed on that Truth. The most influential proponent of Māyāvāda in the current age was Śankarācārya.

māyāvāda — the impersonal philosophy first propounded by Śaṅkarācārya, which proposes the unqualified oneness of God and the living entities (who are both conceived of as being ultimately formless) and the nonreality of manifest nature; the philosophy that everything is one and that the Absolute Truth is not a person.

mayāvādī — one who propounds the philosophy of Śaṅkarācārya, which basically holds that God is featureless and impersonal, that devotion to a personal Godhead is false, the material creation of the Lord is also false, and the ultimate goal of life is to become existentially one with the all-pervading, impersonal Absolute.

Māyāvādīs — (Advaita-vādīs) Proponents of the impersonal philosophy of “oneness,” which holds that the Absolute Truth, one without a second, is formless and changeless, and that whatever has name and form is an illusion falsely imposed on that Truth. The most influential Māyāvādī in the current age was Śankarācārya.

māyayāpahṛta-j˝ānā — A person whose knowledge is stolen by illusion.

mela — fair, festival.

Menakā — the famous society girl of the heavenly planets who seduced the sage Viśvāmitra.

Meru — The great mountain that is the axis of the universe. It is also called Sumeru and Mahāmeru. It extends upward through the center of the earthly planetary system, and on its upper peak lies Satyaloka, the abode of Lord Brahmā.

Meru — a mountain, the golden peak of Himavan, seat of Lord Śiva, abode of the demigods. Also called Maha-meru.

mezze — Middle Eastern hors d'oeuvres or appetizers. Mezze is essentially a Lebanese creation but has spread throughout the Middle East. Delicious vegetarian mezze included in this book are fresh, round Middle Eastern Breads (Pita) and dips such as Chickpea and Sesame Dip (Hummus), Lebanese Eggplant Dip (Babagannonj, and Syrian Yogurt Cheese Labreh). Lebanese Bulgur Wheat Salad (Tabbouleh) invariably appears on the mezze banquet table, as do varieties of Stuffed Vine Leaves (Dolmades), along with simple items such as slices of cucumber, olives, fresh raw or blanched vegetables, nuts, whole cooked chickpeas, and lemon wedges.

 Milk Ocean — See Ocean of Milk.

Mīmāṁsā — “Systematic study” of the meaning of the Vedas. The earlier Mīmāṁsā (Pūrva-Mīmāṁsā), which explains the ritual meaning of the Vedas, was taught by Vyāsadeva’s disciple Jaimini. The second Mīmāṁsā (Uttara-mīmāṁsā), which explains the Absolute Truth, was taught in the Vedānta-sutra by Vyāsa Himself.

Mīmāṁsāsee: Jaimini..

mīmāṁsakas — atheistic philosophers who say that even if God exists He is obliged to reward us the fruits of our work. From karma-mimāṁsā philosophy of Jaimini..

mint — a widely used culinary herb. There are many species of mint, and classification is difficult because the species easily cross and hybridze. Although spearmint (Mentha spicata) and peppermint (Mentha piperata) are the two most common mints, the round-leaved varieties of apple mint, Bowles mint, and pineapple mint (Mentha rotundifolia) are among the best mints for cooking. Mint may be generally described as having a fresh, strong, sweet, and tangy flavour, with a cool after-taste. Mint is better used fresh rather than dried. In Indian cuisine, mint is commonly used in fresh chutneys. Fresh mint also goes with many fruits and is excellent in fruit salads and fruit drinks such as Lemon Mint and Whey Nectar.

Mirabai — poetess, author of popular devotional songs.

miśra — Mixed.

miśra-sattva — mundane goodness.

Mithilā — The capital of the kingdom of Videha, since ancient times a center of learning and brahminical culture.

Mithila — capital of the kingdom of Videha, ruled by King Janaka, fathet of Sita. Modern Janatput, Nepal.

Mitra — the demigod who controls death.

mleccha — A class of persons outside the social and spiritual divisions of Vedic culture, whose standards and practices are considered abominable.

Mleccha — someone lower than a śūdra.

mlecchas — uncivilized humans, outside the Vedic system of society, who are generally meat-eaters.

Moghul — the Muslim dynasty of Indian Emperors starting from Babur.

Moha — bewilderment, a vyabhicāri-bhāva; illusion.

moha — illusion.

mohana — highly advanced ecstasy in which the lovers are separated; divided into udghūrṇā and citra-jalpa.

Mohinī — (-mūrti) The avatāra of Lord Viṣṇu as the most beautiful woman. She appeared from the churning of the Ocean of Milk, deceived the demons, and delivered the nectar of immortality to the demigods.

Mohinī — the incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a most beautiful woman. She distributed the nectar produced from the churning of the ocean of milk. She was also pursued by Lord Śiva.

mokṣa — Liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

mokṣa — liberation from material bondage.

mokṣa-kāmī — one who desires liberation.

mokṣākāṅkṣīsee: Mokṣa-kāmī above

mokṣonmukhī — pious activities that enable the living entity to merge into the existence of the Supreme.

monolith — a monument, statue or temple carved out of a single stone.

monsoon — rainy season from June to October.

moṭṭāyita — awakening of lusty desires by the remembrance and words of the hero.

mozzarella cheese — this famous Italian cheese was traditionally made from buffalo's milk, but these days it is more frequently made from cows milk. It can be eaten fresh, but when hung for some time it becomes a little dry and is then specifically used for cooking. Mozzarella is a good melting cheese, making it a popular topping for pizzas. It can also be baked or batter-fried. It can be obtained at any good supermarket or grocery store.

mṛdaṅga — A two-headed clay drum, traditionally used in kīrtana.

mṛdaṅga — a two-headed clay drum used for kīrtana performances and congregational chanting.

Mṛgāri — A cruel hunter and torturer of animals who, by the influence of Nārada Muni, became a pure devotee.

mṛttikā — clay derived from wet earth.

Mṛtyu — death personified, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Mucukunda — A son of King Māndhātā whose valiant fighting for the demigods won him a boon by which his glance burned to ashes the barbarian Kālayavana, who had been chasing Kṛṣṇa.

Mūḍha — Fool, rascal.

mūḍha — a fool or rascal; asslike person.

mudrā — A symbolic hand gesture.

muhūrta — a period of forty-eight minutes.

mukta-puruṣa — a liberated soul.

mukti — (mokṣa) Liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

mukti — liberation of a conditioned soul from material consciousness and bondage.

Mukti-devī — the demigoddess who is the personification of liberation.

Mukti-pāda — the Supreme Lord under whose feet exist all kinds of liberation.

Mukunda — Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu, the “giver of liberation.”

Mukunda — the name of Kṛṣṇa meaning “the giver of liberation.”

Mukunda-datta — Madhukantha, famous singer of Vrajabhumi

mukut — a crown or tiara worn by the Deity.

Mūla-mantra — a short Sanskrit incantation uttered before one offers an item of worship to the Deity of Kṛṣṇa or His expansions.

mumukṣu — one who desires liberation from the material world.

mung beans sprouts — sprouted, whole green mung beans. Popular in Chinese cooking, the mung beans are allowed to sprout until quite long. However, from a nutritional point of view, mung beans are best used when the beans have just sprouted and the shoot is less than 1 cm long. These are crisp in texture and bursting with nutrition. Mung bean shoots are rich in vitamins B, C, and E. Their protein content (mung bean shoots are 37% protein) is highly digestible; they are pleasantly sweet, low calorie, and inexpensive.

mung beans — protein-rich, green-skinned, oval beans commonly used for sprouting. Also known as 'green gram', whole green mung beans are excellent for stews and soups, as well as Indian dry-bean dishes. It is available at Indian or Asian grocers, or specialty stores.

mung dal — the pale, yellow beans from the plant Phaseolus aureus. Whether used with or without the husks, split mung beans are a popular food item in Indian cuisine. Mung dal is easy to digest, is high in protein, and cooks to a creamy puree in a short time. It is used extensively in soups, stews, and sauces throughout India. Split mung beans are also used in Thai and Vietnamese cooking. It is available at Indian or Asian grocery stores.

muni — A thoughtful sage.

muni — a sage or self-realized soul.

muni-putra — the son of a sage.

Mura — A five-headed demon employed by Narakāsura to guard the fortress of his capital, Prāgjyotiṣa-pura. When Kṛṣṇa invaded, He killed Mura and then Naraka.

Murāri — Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the demon Mura.

Murāri — Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the demon Mura.

Muraripu (Muradviṣa) — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, the killer of the demon Mura

mūrti — A form, usually referring to a Deity.

Mūrti — form of the Lord or His devotee.

mustard seeds — of the many varieties of mustard, the three most prominent are the tiny round brownish-black seeds from the plant known as Brassica nigra, commonly known as black mustard; the purple-brown seed of Brassica juncea, commonly called brown mustard; and the yellow seeds from Brassica alba, known as white or yellow mustard. Black and brown mustard seeds are often confused with each other. Brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) are commonly used as a spice seed in Indian cuisine, where they are known as rai. In South Indian Cuisine they are fried in hot oil or ghee to extract their nutty, pungent flavour before being added to soups, chutneys, or vegetable dishes. In Bengali cuisine, mustard seeds are one of the five ingredients in the whole spice blend known as panch puran. Yellow mustard seeds (Brassica alba) are less pungent than the darker varieties and are commonly used in European cuisine as a pickling spice. They are strongly preservative, discouraging moulds and bacteria; hence their inclusion in pickles. When mustard seeds are pounded, they form the basis of the immense varieties of commercial brands  of the condiment known as mustard. Different varieties of mustard are made from different combinations of hulled and unhulled yellow or brown seeds. It is interesting to note mung beans. Popular in Chinese cooking, the that the pungency of mustard is due to an essential oil which is not present in the seed or the powder, but which forms when the crushed seed is mixed with water. An enzyme then causes a bitter substance in the seed to react with the water, and the hot taste of mustard emerges. Yellow mustard seeds are available from supermarkets and grocers, and brown or black mustard seeds are available at Indian grocery stores.

Muṣṭika — A wrestler in Mathurā ordered by Kasa to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Balarāma wrestled him in Kaṁsa’s arena and killed him.

Myrobalan — An Ayurvedic medicinal plant.

mystic yogayoga performed for the purpose of developing subtle material powers.


Krishna and Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra