* Indicates that the entry was obtained from the VedaBase glossary.
All other entries were obtained from the krishna.com glossary.

Vedic Sanskrit Glossary - P -

paani — water.

pāda-sevana — the devotional process of serving at the Lord’s feet.

pada-yātrā — A traveling missionary festival, conducted mainly on foot.

padayātrā — foot journey; to go on pilgrimage by foot.

paḍichā — a superintendent of an Orissan temple.

Padma Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas, or Vedic historical scriptures. It consists of conversation between Lord Śiva and his wife, Pārvati.

Padma — The goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, consort of Lord Nārāyaṇa.

Padma — the lotus flower held by Lord Viṣṇu.

Padmanābha — a name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who has a lotus flower sprouting from His navel” or “He whose navel resembles a lotus.”

padya — Fragrant water used to wash the feet of an honorable guest.

pādya — water ceremoniously offered for washing feet.

paise — 100 paise equals one rupee.

pakka — ripe, mature, reliable

palak — spinach.

pālana-śakti — the power to rule and maintain the living entities.

palanquin — a seat that can be carried by four men, usually used to transport great personages or ladies.

pālas — attendants who look after a temple’s external affairs.

palāśa treeButea frondosa, a tree with fragrant, large, bright orange flowers.

Pallavas — South Indian dynasty of rulers.

PAMHO. AGTSP. — An acronym, often used in written correspondence as a standard greeting among devotees: “Please accept my humble obeisances. All glories to Śrīla Prabhupāda.”

pan — Betel nut prepared with lime and spices and wrapped in a leaf for chewing.

pańca-gavya — five kinds of products of the cow used to bathe the Deity.

pańca-mahābhūta — the five gross elements: earth, water, fire, air and ether.

pańca-mahāyajńa — the five daily sacrifices performed by householders to become free from unintentional sins.

Pańca-tattva — the Lord-Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, His plenary portion-Nityānanda Prabhu, His incarnation-Advaita Prabhu, His energy-Gadādhara Prabhu, and His devotee-Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura.

Pańcajana — A powerful demon who lived in a conch in the ocean. He kidnapped the son of Kṛṣṇa’s teacher, Sāndīpani. Kṛṣṇa killed Pańcajana and rescued the boy.

Pāńcajanya — the conchshell of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Pāńcāla — the kingdom of King Drupada.

pańcāla — the five sense objects.

pańcāmṛta — five kinds of nectar used to bathe the Deity.

Pańcarātra — Vedic literatures describing the process of Deity worship. See also: Nārada-pańcarātra

pańcarātra-vidhi — the standard Vaiṣṇava method of temple worship taught in the Pańcarātras.

Pańcarātras — Vaiṣṇava tantras that teach one to worship the Supreme Lord by serving His Deity forms and chanting mantras addressed to Him.

Pāńcarātric — The method of formal worship taught in the Pańcarātras.

pańcarātrika — the process of worshiping the Deity, as explained by Nārada Muni. Also, a five-day fast, as explained by Kauṇḍilya Ṛṣi.

pańcarātrika-vidhi — the devotional process of Deity worship and mantra meditation as found in the Pańcarātra literature.

panch masala — a mixture of five whole spices used in preparing vegetable dishes.

panch puransee: Five spice

Pāńcharātrikī — The rules and regulations of Deity worship, as set down by Nārada Muni in his Nārada-pańcharātra.

pańcopāsanā — worship by impersonalist Māyāvādīs of five deities (Viṣṇu, Durgā, Brahmā, Gaṇeśa and Vivasvān) that is motivated by the desire to ultimately abandon all conceptions of a personal Absolute.

paṇḍa — Temple priest, usually of a caste brāhmaṇa family.

pāṇḍā — a brahmāṇa guide at temples and holy places; see also: paṇḍita.

pandal — lit., “tent.” Refers to religious programs and lectures, typically held under large tents.

Pāṇḍavas — The five sons of Pāṇḍu. The three older Pāṇḍavas Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma, and Arjuna were born to Pāṇḍu’s wife Kuntī by the three demigods Yamarāja, Vāyu, and Indra. The other two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva, were born of Pāṇḍu’s other wife Mādrī by the Aśvini-kumāras.

Pāṇḍavas — the five pious ksatriya brothers Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. They were intimate friends of Lord Kṛṣṇa's and inherited the leadership of the world upon their victory over the Kurus in the Battle of Kurukṣetra.

paṇḍita — A scholar.

Paṇḍita — a scholar learned in Vedic literature, not only academically but also by dint of spiritual realization. Though this is the proper definition of the word, the term is also loosely applied to any scholar.

paṇḍita — a learned scholar.

paṇḍita-maṇi — word indicating that Kṛṣṇa is honored even by learned scholars.

Pāṇḍitaka — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

Pāṇḍu — The Kuru emperor after Vicitravīrya. When Vicitravīrya died childless, Pāṇḍu was born from one of Vicitravīrya’s wives, Ambalikā, by Dvaipāyana Vyasa.

Pāṇḍu — a great king of the Kuru dynasty, and the father of the Pāṇḍavas, Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva; the heroes of the Mahābhārata. He had two wives, Kuntī and Mādrī. He was a younger brother of Dhṛtarāṣṭra's who died early, leaving his five young sons under the care of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.

pāṇḍu-vijaya — the function of carrying Lord Jagannātha to His car prior to the Ratha-yātrā procession.

Pāṇḍyas — the South Indian dynasty that ruled over Madurai and Rāmeśvaram in South India.

paneer (panir) — Indian cheese, curd made from fresh milk. See: curd cheese.

pāṅji-ṭikā — further explanations of a subject.

Pāpahāriṇī — a name for the Ekādaśī that occurs during the dark part of the month of Caitra. It means “that which takes away sin.” Another name for this day, having the same meaning, is Pāpamocani.

Pāpānkuṣā — the name for the Ekādaśī that occurs during the light part of the month of Aśvina. It means “that which has the power to pierce sin personified.”

pappadam — plain or spiced wafer-thin brittle disks made from dried dal paste that swell into thin tasty crispbreads when deep-fried or toasted over an open flame. Ranging from 7-25 cm (3-10 inches) in width, pappadams are popular served as accompaniments to a full meal, as snacks, or as party nibblers. They're available at Indian grocery stores.

paprika — the bright red powder made from the dried, sweet, chili-pepper pods of the many varieties of Capsicum annuum. Good paprika has a brilliant red colour and because it is not hot, it can be used in generous quantities, giving dishes a rich red hue. It is also very nutritious having a high vitamin C content. Paprika is the national spice of Hungary and is featured in Hungarian and Spanish as well as North Indian cuisines (where it is used in dals and sauces). It is available at grocery stores.

para — transcendental.

Para-brahman — (param brahma) The supreme personal form of the Absolute Truth.

parā-prakṛti — the superior, spiritual energy or nature of the Lord.

para-upakāra — helping others.

para-vidyā — transcendental knowledge.

Parabrahman — the Supreme Brahman, the Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

parakīya — the relationship between a married woman and her paramour; particularly the relationship between the damsels of Vṛndāvana and Krṣṇa.

parakīya-rasa — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s paramour relationship with the gopīs, as distinguished from His svakīya relationship with His wives.

parakīya-rasa — relationship with Kṛṣṇa as His paramour.

Param Brahman — the Supreme Brahman, the Personality of Godhead, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Param dhāma — the eternal planets of the spiritual world.

paraṁ gati — Ultimate goal.

paraṁ-padam — The supreme situation. May refer either to the spiritual world or the impersonal brahmajyoti effulgence.

parama — Supreme.

parama-puruṣārtha — the supreme goal of life.

parama-vidvān — the most learned scholar.

paramahaṁsa bābājī — he who is on the highest platform of spiritual asceticism and who has given up all social and caste designations. The only designation maintained by him is that of being a tiny servant of the unlimited Supreme Personality of Godhead.

paramahaṁsa — “Perfect swan,” a completely pure devotee of the Supreme Lord, beyond any influence of material illusion.

paramahaṁsa — a topmost, God-realized, swanlike devotee of the Supreme Lord; highest stage of sannyāsa.

paramahaṁsa-ṭhākura — one who acts as an ācārya, directly presenting Lord Kṛṣṇa by spreading His name and fame.

Paramaṁ padam — the Lord’s transcendental abode.

Paramātmā — The “Supersoul,” the aspect of the Supreme Lord who accompanies every conditioned soul as the indwelling witness and guide.

Paramātmā — the Supersoul, the localized aspect Viṣṇu expansion of the Supreme Lord residing in the heart of each embodied living entity and pervading all of material nature.

Parameśvara — The Personality of Godhead, who is the “supreme controller.”

Parameśvara — the supreme controller, Lord Kṛṣṇa.

paramparā — An authorized Vaiṣṇava disciplic succession. More ordinarily, any tradition.

paramparā — the disciplic succession through which spiritual knowledge is transmitted by bona-fide spiritual masters.

Parantapa — a name of Arjuna, “chastiser of the enemies.”

parārdha — One half of the duration of Lord Brahmā’s life.

parārdha — one half of Brahmā's lifetime of 311 trillion 40 billion years.

Parasara Muni — a great sage, the speaker of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa, and the father of Śrīla Vyāsadeva.

Parāśara — The great sage who spoke the Viṣṇu Purāṇa to Maitreya and was the father of Dvaipāyana Vyasa.

Paraśurāma — One of the daśa-avatāras, the ten most famous incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu. He appeared as a brāhmaṇa but had the qualities of a warrior. When Paraśurāma’s father was murdered by the wicked King Kartavīrya, Paraśurama vowed to exterminate all the kṣatriyas on earth, and he fulfilled that vow twenty-one times.

Paraśurāma — the sixth incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa, who appeared in ancient times to overthrow the warrior class when they had become degraded, who destroyed twenty-one consecutive generations of lawless members of the ruling class. He taught the science of weapons to Droṇa and Karṇa.

paravyoma — the spiritual sky.

paricchada — the total aggregate of the senses.

parijāta — An exquisite flower that grows only in the spiritual world and on the heavenly planets. Defeating the opposition of Indra, Kṛṣṇa brought a parijāta tree from Svargaloka for His wife Satyabhāmā and planted it in her garden in Dvāraka.

pārijāta — an extraordinarily fragrant white flower that Lord Kṛṣṇa brought from the heavenly planets for His wife Rukmiṇi.

parikrama — A walking pilgrimage.

parikrama — the path that circles a sacred tract such as Vrndavan or Braj

Parīkṣit — The son of Abhimanyu who inherited the Kuru throne from Yudhiṣṭhira. Kṛṣṇa personally saved him in his mother’s womb, and thus the child was named Parīkṣit because he was searching (parikṣeta) for the person who had protected him.

Parīkṣit — the son of Abhimanyu and grandson of Arjuna. When the Pāṇḍavas retired from kingly life, he was crowned king of the entire world. He was later cursed to die by an immature brāhmaṇa boy and became the hearer of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam from Śukadeva Gosvāmī, and thus attained perfection.

pariṇāma-vāda — the theory of transformation in the creation of the universe.

pariṣad — A liberated associate of Kṛṣṇa.

Pāriṣats — devotees who are personal associates of the Lord.

parivrājaka — (-ācārya) A man in the third of the four stages of the renounced order (sannyāsa). The word indicates that he wanders everywhere to preach.

parivrājakācārya — the third stage of sannyāsa, wherein the devotee constantly travels and preaches.

parmesan — the most famous of all the grana, or matured hard cheeses of Italy, parmesan, or parmigiano, takes at least two years to come to maturity, resulting in its traditional sharp flavour. Parmesan cheese should be bought in pieces to be freshly grated over sauces, pasta, or rice, or added to cooked dishes.

parṣadas — Personal associates of the Supreme Lord.

parsley — one of the best known and most extensively used culinary herbs in western cuisine. There are numerous cultivated varieties of parsley, but the ornamental curled variety is the most popular as a garnish, and the flat-leaved parsley is most favoured in Italian and other Mediterranean cuisines. Both are varieties of Petroselinum crispum Healthful parsley leaves, with their familiar mild, agreeable flavour, are an excellent source of vitamin C, iron, iodine, and other minerals. Parsley is appealing to the eye nose, and taste, will sweeten the breath, and is a natural herbal deodorizer. It is a pleasant addition to an enormous variety of savoury dishes. It is available at produce markets, greengrocers, and supermarkets.

Pārtha — “Son of Pṛtha (Kuntī)” , an epithet of Arjuna, Yudhiṣṭhira, or Bhīma.

Pārtha-sārathi — Kṛṣṇa, the chariot driver of Arjuna (Pārtha).

Pārvata Muni — a great sage who is a constant companion of Nārada.

Pārvatī — Lord Śiva’s eternal consort, especially in her incarnation as the daughter of the Himalaya mountains (parvata).

Pārvatī — Sati, Lord Śiva's consort, meaning daughter of the mountain. She was reborn as the daughter of Himālaya after consuming herself in mystic fire at Dakṣa's sacrificial arena.

pāsa — a mystic noose used to capture Bali Mahārāja.

pāṣaṇḍa — atheism.

pāṣaṇḍī — An atheist; one who thinks the Lord and the demigods to be equal or who considers devotional activities to be material.

pāṣaṇḍī — an “offender,” or atheist; a nonbeliever; one who thinks God and the demigods are on the same level, or who considers devotional activities to be material.

Pāṣcālī — another name of Draupadī, the wife of the Pāṇḍavas.

pasta — the finest pasta is made from durum wheat, which is one of the hardest varieties of wheat. When making pasta from durum wheat only the endosperm of the grain kernel is milled into semolina, which is then mixed with water to make the dough. When preparing pasta dishes, note that the completed pasta should be tender without being soft and sticky — this is called al dente. Pasta comes in many shapes and sizes. Notable varieties used in Kurma's Vegetarian Dishes are as follows — 1. Conchiglie — a shell-shaped pasta 2. Fettuccine — a flat, ribbon noodle with a coiled, bird's-nest appearance 3. Lasagna — flat sheets of pasta used for baking in layers 4. Linguine — a very thin, narrow ribbon noodle 5. Penne rigate — short, tubular,  ridged pasta, like short macaroni, but with angled ends 6. Rigatoni — a ridged short variety of macaroni 7. Risoni — rice-shaped pasta used for soups 8. Spaghetti — common string-like noodles of many varieties 9. Trenette — narrow ribbon pasta similar to linguine 10. Vermicelli — a thin variety of spaghetti

Pāśupatāstra — the ultimate weapon of Lord Śiva. This weapon was used by Arjuna to kill Jayadratha.

Pātāla — (-loka) The lowest of the seven subterranean heavenly planets. It is inhabited by the Nāgas, great serpents.

Pātālaloka — the lowest of the universe’s fourteen planetary systems; also, the lower planets in general; also the seventh tier of the lower planetary systems, where Bali Mahārāja reigns.

Patańjali — a great authority and propounder on the aṣṭāṅga mystic yoga system and author of the Yoga-sūtra. He imagined the form of the Absolute Truth in everything.

paṭhana — a brāhmaṇa’s duty to be conversant with the Vedic scriptures; study of the scriptures.

pati — Husband.

pati — a husband.

pati-guru — Lit., “husband-spiritual master.” A term of respect addressed to a man by his wife.

patita-pāvana — Savior of the fallen souls.

Patita-pāvana — Lord Caitanya, the deliverer of the fallen souls.

pātra — players in a drama.

paugaṇḍa — The age between five and ten years.

paugaṇḍa — the age from five to ten years.

Pauṇḍraka — A foolish king of Karūṣa who was convinced that he was the incarnation of Lord Vāsudeva and that Kṛṣṇa was an impostor. When Pauṇḍraka demanded that Kṛṣṇa surrender His weapons, Kṛṣṇa complied by releasing His sudarśana disc to cut off Pauṇḍraka’s head.

Pauṇḍraka — an enemy of Lord Kṛṣṇa who attempted to imitate Him.

Pauṇḍram — the conchshell of Bhīmasena.

paura-jana — the seven elements that constitute the body.

pautra — patience and gravity.

pavitram — pure.

peanut oil — also known as ground-nut oil. The method of extraction is particularly important to the value of peanut oil. High-quality, more expensive peanut oil comes from cold pressing. Lesser-quality peanut oils are produced with the aid of chemical solvents. The oil is then refined and heated and treated with anti-oxidants. Cold pressed health-food store peanut oils are good substitutes for olive oil in salads, whereas the cheaper and more refined peanut oils usually sold at supermarkets are good for deep-frying, because peanut oil has a smoking point of up to 230C/450F and has a bland flavour.

pepper — the small, round berries of the woody perennial evergreen vine Piper nigrum. Black pepper, white pepper, and green pepper are all obtained from these same berries in different stages of maturity. For black pepper, the berries are picked whilst green, left in heaps to ferment sun-dried, and allowed to shrivel and turn dark brown or black. Thus the whole berry, including the dark outer hull, forms what we know as black pepper. White pepper is produced from fully ripened berries, which are greenish-yellow when picked and at the point of turning red. Then they are soaked in water, the outer hull is rubbed off, and the grey inner berries are sun-dried until they turn creamy white, to become what is known as white pepper.  Green peppercorns are soft, immature berries that have been picked and preserved in brine, or freeze dried. Black pepper is characterized by a penetrating odour and a hot, biting, and extremely pungent flavour; milder-flavoured white pepper is generally appreciated in European cuisine. Either way, black and white pepper are used in practically every cuisine in the world. Although available pre-ground, discerning  cooks prefer the superior flavour of freshly ground peppercorns, for which a pepper mill is an essential acquisition.

Phala-śrutis — Sanskrit verses granting various benedictions.

phalgu — weak, temporary.

Phalguna — another name for Arjuna; one of the months corresponding to January/February or February/March.

phul gobhi — cauliflower

pika — Indian cuckoo.

pika — the Indian cuckoo bird.

pimiento — skinned sweet red peppers of a small, elongated variety of Capsicum annuum. They are preserved in saltwater or sometimes in oil, and are used in Mediterranean cooking to add bright colours and sweet flavour, especially to salads. They also make an attractive garnish when drained and cut into strips.

piṇḍa — an offering made to departed ancestors.

pinenut — also known as pine kernel, pignolia, or pinoli. Pinenuts come from the stone pine (Pinus pinea), a beautiful Mediterranean pine tree. The pine cones are gathered, the seeds are shaken out and cracked, and the small white or cream-coloured kernels are extracted. Their delicious, delicate nutty taste has made them a very popular ingredient in Italian, Spanish, and Middle Eastern cuisine. They are available at specialty, Continental, or Middle Eastern grocers.

pinto beans — protein-rich beans related to the kidney bean, from the well-known vulgaris family. Much-used in Mexican-style cuisine, it can be substituted with kidney beans if unavailable.

pippalaFicus religiosa, a large tree of the fig family with glossy, dark green leaves.

Pippalāyana — A son of Ṛṣabhadeva who became a prominent sage on Tapoloka.

Piśāca — a hobgoblin follower of Lord Śiva.

pita — a lightly leavened round Middle Eastern bread with a soft crust and usually a hollow centre. Generally made without oil, it is baked in a very hot oven for a few minutes, where it puffs up, deflating when cooled. There are many versions throughout the Middle East, each one with a different name. The term pita has become a popular name for these breads in the West. Whether in Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Morocco, Algeria, or Armenia, some version of round, slightly leavened bread is always available, especially for the famous mezze, or hor d’oeuvres.

pitās — forefathers; especially those departed ancestors who have been promoted to one of the higher planets.

pitha — the pedestal or altar of the Deity. The pitha is in the sanctum sanctorum (inner sanctum)

pitṛ-yajńa — offering oblations of water before one’s forefathers.

Pitṛloka — the planet of the ancestors, a heavenly planet.

pitta — bile, one of the three main elements of the body.

Plakṣa-dvīpa — One of the nine “islands” surrounding Mount Meru in Bhū-maṇḍala. Bounded on its inner side by the Ocean of Salt and on its outer side by the Ocean of Liquor, it forms the second ring of land beyond Meru. It is ruled by Idhmajihva, a son of Priyavrata.

polenta — a yellow maize or cornmeal grown in northern Italy, where it is regarded as a staple food. Polenta is graded according to its texture and is available fine-, medium-, or coarse-ground. It is available at most supermarkets and health food stores.

poppy seeds — two varieties of poppy seed are referred to here — black and white. Both are the seeds of the poppy plant Papaver somniferum. The minute, kidney-shaped, bluish-black seeds have a pleasant nutty taste and crunchy texture. They are well-known in Middle Eastern and European cuisine as a topping for breads and cakes, or ground up and sweetened as a pastry filling. White poppy seeds are much used in Indian cuisine. They are even smaller than black poppy seeds, have a similar flavour, and are creamy-white. When ground, they add special flavours to Bengali dishes. They are especially used as a thickener for sauces or gravies (flours are generally not used in Indian cuisine for this purpose). Obtain black poppy seeds from any grocer or supermarket. White poppy seeds can be purchased at Indian Grocers.

poṣaṇa — the Lord’s special care and protection for His devotees.

Prabhāsa — a holy place near Dvārakā where the fratricide of the Yadu dynasty took place.

prabhu — Lit., “master.” Added to a devotee’s name by another devotee to show respect.

prabhu — master.

prabhu-datta-deśa — The geographical location assigned by the spiritual master to the disciple for service to his mission.

prabhu-datta-deśa — a place for preaching given by the spiritual master or Lord Kṛṣṇa.

prabhupāda — master at whose feet all other masters surrender.

Prabhupāda, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami — Founder-ācārya of ISKCON and foremost preacher of Kṛṣṇa consciousness in the Western world.

Prabhupāda, Śrīlasee: Śrīla Prabhupāda.

Prabhupāda-kathā — Talks by or about Śrīla Prabhupāda.

prabodha — awakening, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī — a great Vaiṣṇava poet-philosopher and devotee of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He was the uncle of Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī.

Pracetās — Ten sons of Dakṣa who under the guidance of Lord Śiva performed severe austerities and meditation to help populate the universe.

Pracetās — the ten sons of King Prācīnabarhi. They achieved perfection by worshiping Lord Viṣṇu.

Prācīnabarhi — a king who, entangled in fruitive activities, received instructions on devotional service from Nārada Muni.

Pradesh — state in India.

pradhāna — Material nature in its primordial undifferentiated state.

pradhāna — the total material energy in its unmanifest state.

Pradyumna — A son of Kṛṣṇa in Dvāraka. He appears in Dvāraka and Mathurā as the transcendental Cupid, the third of the original quadruple vyūha expansions of the Supreme Lord. He again expands from Lord Nārayaṇa in Vaikuṇṭha, in the second quadruple, as the ruler of mind.

Pradyumna — one of the four original expansions of Lord Kṛṣṇa in the spiritual world; also the first son of Lord Kṛṣṇa by Rukminī. He fought against Śālva in the fight for Dvārakā. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

Prāgjyotiṣa — (-pura) The ancient capital of the demon Bhauma and home of the Durgā deity Kāmākhyā. Now known as Guwahati, it is the capital of the Indian state of Assam.

Prāgjyotiṣapura — the capital city of Narakāsura and his son Bhagadatta.

prahara — a three-hour period, eight of which make up each day.

prahararāja — a designation given to brāhmaṇas who represent the king when the throne is vacant.

Prahlāda Maharāja — a great devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa who was persecuted by his atheistic father, Hiraṇyakaśipu, but was always protected by the Lord and ultimately saved by the Lord in the form of Nṛsiṁhadeva.

Prahlāda — One of the greatest devotees of Lord Viṣṇu. As the five-year-old son of the mighty demon Hiraṇyakaśipu, he openly dared to worship the Personality of Godhead and preach His glories. Hiraṇyakaśipu tried many ways to kill the boy, but failed to harm him. Finally Lord Viṣṇu appeared as Lord Nṛsiṁha, killed Hiraṇyakaśipu, and enthroned Prahlāda as king of the demons.

prajalpa — Foolish, idle, or mundane speech. Talks unrelated to Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

prajalpa — idle talk on mundane subjects.

Prajāpatis — The original “progenitors” of the universal population. They are the sons of Brahmā other than the celibate Kumāras and Nārada.

Prajāpatis — the progenitors of living entities, chief of whom is Lord Brahmā; The demigods in charge of populating the universe.

prajās — citizens (including all species of life).

prajvāra — a kind of fever called viṣṇu jvāra.

prākāmya — the mystic ability to fulfill any of one’s desires.

prakara — the high walls surrounding the temple grounds.

Prakāśa-vigrahas — forms of the Lord manifested for His pastimes.

prakaṭa-līla — Kṛṣṇa’s “manifest pastimes,” visible to the public at specific times and in a linear sequence of events. In contrast, His “unmanifest pastimes” go on eternally, all simultaneously, and are seen only by rare, fortunate souls.

Prakaṭa-līlā — the manifestation on earth of the Supreme Lord’s pastimes.

prākṛta — on the material platform.

prākṛta-bhakta — One who performs devotional service for material gain.

prākṛta-bhaktas — materialistic devotees not advanced in spiritual knowledge.

prākṛta-sahajiyā — A class of pseudo-devotees who take the conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīscheaply and do not follow the proper regulations of vaidhi-bhakti.

prākṛta-sahajiyās — pseudo devotees of Kṛṣṇa who take devotional service cheaply and do not follow the regulations of the scripture; materialistic so-called Vaiṣṇavas who imagine themselves to be confidential devotees.

prakṛti — Material nature.

prakṛti — material nature, the energy of the Supreme (lit., that which is predominated).; the female principle enjoyed by the male puruṣa. There are two prakrtis — apara-prakṛti, the material nature, and para-prakrti, the spiritual nature (living entities)-which are both predominated over by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

prakṣepātmikā-śaktimāyā’s power to throw one into the material world.

Pralamba — (-asura) A demon sent by Kaṁsa to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Pralamba disguised himself as a cowherd boy with the intention of killing Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, but instead Balarāma killed him.

pralāpa — the ecstatic symptom of talking like a madman.

pramāda — inattention or misunderstanding of reality.

pramadā — woman, to whom a man becomes madly attached.

pramāṇa — Evidence or proof.

pramatta — one who is crazy because he cannot control his senses.

Pramlocā — the daughter of the sage Kaṇḍu by the heavenly society girl Māriṣā who became the wife of the Pracetās.

prāṇa — The vital air of life. It causes all movement in the body, physical and mental, and at death carries the soul into the next body.

prāṇa — the life air.

prāṇa-maya — (consciousness) absorbed in maintaining one’s bodily existence.

 praṇāmas — An offering of respect by joining ones hands.

praṇati — Obeisances.

pranava oṁkarasee: oṁkāra

praṇavasee: oṁkāra.

praṇaya — that mellow of love when there is a possibility to receive direct honor, but it is avoided .

prāṇāyāma — The breath control exercises in the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system.

prāṇāyāma — breath control used in yoga practice, especially aṣṭāṅga-yoga (one of the eight parts of the aṣṭanga-yoga system).

prāpta-brahma-laya — one who has already attained the Brahman position.

prāpta-svarūpas — those merged in Brahman realization.

prāpti — the mystic ability to immediately obtain any material object.

prāpti-siddhi — mystic perfection of acquisition by which the yogī can reach his hand anywhere and obtain whatever he likes.

prarocanā — the method inducing the audience to become more and more eager to hear by praising the time and place, the hero and the audience.

prasāda, or prasādam — “the mercy of Lord Kṛṣṇa.” Food prepared for the pleasure of Kṛṣṇa and offered to Him with love and devotion. Because Kṛṣṇa tastes the offering, the food becomes spiritualized and purifies anyone who eats it. See also: Mahā-prasādam

prasādam — (prasāda) The remnants of food and other items offered to the Supreme Lord. By accepting Kṛṣṇa’s prasādam one can rapidly become purified and achieve pure love of God.

prasādī — food offered to Lord Jagannātha.

prasannātmā — joyfulness attained when one is relieved from material conceptions.

praśānta — undisturbed by the modes of nature.

Prasūti — a daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu who was the wife of Dakṣa.

Prataparudra — The king of Orissa at the time of Lord Caitanya’s manifest presence and a great devotee of the Lord.

pratibimba-vāda — the worship of a form that is the reflection of a false material form.

pratigraha — accepting charity; the duty of a brāhmaṇa to accept contributions from his followers.

pratikriyā — counteracting agents such as mantras and medicines.

Pratīpa — the father of Mahārāja Śantanu.

pratiṣṭhāśā — desire for name and fame or high position.

Prativindhya — A son of Yudhiṣṭhira and Draupadī, murdered in his sleep with his brothers during the Battle of Kurukṣetra while they were still in their teens.

Prativindhya — the son of Draupadī and Yudhiṣṭhira. He was killed by Aśvatthāmā while awaking from sleep in his tent.

pratyag-ātmā — the soul, when purified of material attachment.

pratyāhāra — In the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system, the practice of withdrawing the senses.

pratyāhāra — withdrawal of the senses from all unnecessary activities, as a means of advancement in the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system..

pravartaka — introduction to a drama, when the players first enter the stage in response to the time.

pravāsa — the condition of separation of lovers who were previously intimately associated.

pravṛtti-mārga — the path of sense enjoyment in accordance with Vedic regulations.

Prayāga — (-tīrtha) The sacred city at the confluence of the three holiest rivers Yamunā, Gaṅgā, and the now underground Sarasvatī. Prayāga is today known as Allahabad.

Prayāga — (modern Allahabad) a very sacred place, mentioned in the Purāṇas, situated at the confluence of the holy Ganges, Yamunā and Sarasvatī Rivers. A Māgha-melā and a Kumbha-melā are celebrated here. Every year many thousands of pilgrims come to bathe in the holy waters. It was here that Lord Caitanya instructed Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī for ten days.

prāyaścitta — atonement for sinful acts.

prayojana — The ultimate goal of life: to develop love of God.

prayojana — the ultimate goal of life, to develop love of God.

prema — Pure ecstatic love of God.

prema — real love of God, the highest perfectional stage of life.

 prema-bhajana — Personal worship of the Supreme Lord in ecstatic love.

prema-bhakti — Spontaneous devotional service to the Supreme Lord in ecstatic love.

prema-bhakti — pure love of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the highest perfectional stage in the progressive development of pure devotional service.

prema-rasa — The transcendental taste of pure love of God.

prema-saṅkīrtana — congregational chanting in love of Godhead.

prema-vaicittya — an abundance of love that brings about grief from fear of separation although the lover is present.

prema-vataḥ — one who has great love for the spiritual master.

premānanda — The ecstasy of pure love of God.

Pretsila Hill — a hill about 540 feet high, located five miles northwest of Gayā in the state of Bihar. Pilgrims perform the śraddha ceremony there. A long flight of steps which leads to the summit and temple was constructed in 1774 by Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda's ancestor Madan Mohan Dutt.

preyas — activity which is immediately beneficial but not ultimately auspicious.

priyatama — dearmost.

Priyavrata — The eldest son of the first Manu, Svāyambhuva. He refused his father’s order that he marry and rule the earth, but Lord Brahmā convinced him to change his mind. Priyavrata later gave charge of the dvīpas of Bhū-maṇḍala to seven of his sons, resumed his solitary practice of meditation, and at the end achieved liberation.

Priyavrata — the son of Svāyambhuva Manu and brother of Uttānapāda. He once ruled the universe.

proṣita-bhaṛtkā — a woman whose husband has left home and gone to a foreign country.

Pṛṣata — the father of King Drupada.

Pṛśni — Kṛṣṇa’s mother Devakī in an earlier life, when Kṛṣṇa appeared as Pṛśnigarbha. Even earlier, she appeared as Aditi, the mother of Lord Vāmana.

Pṛśni — the name of Devakī in a previous birth.

Pṛthā — See Kuntī.

Pṛthā — Kuntī, the wife of King Pāṇḍu, mother of the Pāṇḍavas and aunt of Lord Kṛṣṇa. See also: Kunti-devi.

Pṛthu Mahārāja — an empowered incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa who demonstrated how to be an ideal ruler.

Pṛthu — An empowered incarnation of the Supreme Lord who appeared as an ideal king to bring forth the resources of the earth.

pūja — Formal worship of the Supreme Lord or some demigod or respected person.

pūjā — offering of worship.

pūjārī — A devotee who performs the direct worship and service of the Deity in a temple.

pūjārī — priest, one who offers pūjā or worships the Deity in a temple.

Pulastya (Pulaha) — one of the seven great sages who were born directly from Lord Brahmā.

puṁścalī — a harlot, or unchaste woman.

Puṇḍarīkākṣa — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He whose eyes are like the reddish lotus flower.”

puṇya-karma — pious activities, which help to liberate one from the cycle of birth and death in the material world.

Puṇya-śloka — verses that increase one’s piety; one who is glorified by such verses.

pura-pālaka — the life air.

puraka — the stage of equilibrium attained by offering the inhaled breath into the exhaled breath.

puram — town.

Purāṇas — The histories of the universe, supplements to the Vedas. There are eighteen major Purāṇas and many secondary ones. The major Purāṇas are divided into three groups of six, meant for readers in each of the three modes of material nature.

Purāṇas — the eighteen major and eighteen minor ancient Vedic literatures compiled about five thousand years ago in India by Srila Vyasadeva that are histories of this and other planets; literatures supplementary to the Vedas, discussing such topics as the creation of the universe, incarnations of the Supreme Lord and demigods, and the history of dynasties of saintly kings. The eighteen principal Purāṇas discuss ten primary subject matters: 1) the primary creation, 2) the secondary creation, 3) the planetary systems, 4) protection and maintenance by the avatāras, 5) the Manus. 6) dynasties of great kings, 7) noble character and activities of great kings, 8) dissolution of the universe and liberation of the living entity, 9) the jīva (the spirit soul), 10) the Supreme Lord.

Purańjana — The hero of an allegorical story told by Nārada to King Prācīnabarhi to teach the folly of materialistic life.

puraścaraṇa — a preliminary ritualistic performance for the fulfillment of certain desires.

puraścaryā — five preliminary devotional activities performed to qualify for initiation.

Purī — (Jagannātha Purī, Nīlācala, Nīlādri) The holy city (in Orissa, on the Bay of Bengal) where Lord Jagannātha resides.

puri (poori) — a small deep-fried flat bread made from white flour, wholewheat flour, or a mixture of both.

puri — A deep-fried, puffed bread.

Pūrṇa — the complete whole, Lord Kṛṣṇa.

pūrṇam — complete.

pūrṇimā — The full moon day.

Purnima — the day of the full moon.

Purocana — a minister of King Duryodhana. He died in the fire of the house of lac in Vāraṇāvata.

pūrtam — performance of sacrifice.

Pūru — the youngest son of King Yayāti, who agreed to exchange his youth for his father’s old age.

Purūravā — a king who was captivated by the celestial woman Urvaśī.

Puruṣa — The Supreme Lord in a Viṣṇu expansion for the creation of the material world; the enjoyer, or male, referring either to the living entity or the Supreme Lord.

puruṣa — the enjoyer, or male; the living entity or the Supreme 1ord; Viṣṇu, the incarnation of the Lord for material creation; the male or controlling principle.

Puruṣa-adhama — the Personality of Godhead, under whom all other persons remain.

Puruṣa-avatāras — The three incarnations of the Supreme Lord who create and maintain the material universes: Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva.

Puruṣa-avatāras — the primary expansions of Lord Viṣṇu who effect the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material universes.

Puruṣa-avatāras — the primary expansions of Lord Viṣṇu who effect the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material universes.

Puruṣa-sūkta — A famous hymn of the Ṛg Veda, tenth maṇḍala. It describes the creation of the various forms of life and the first Vedic sacrifice, all from the body of Lord Garbhodaka-śāyī.

Puruṣa-sūkta — a sacred hymn glorifying the Supersoul of the universe.

puruṣārtha — The four standard goals of human life: dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), kāma (sense gratification), and mokṣa (liberation).

puruṣārtha — the goal of life.

Puruṣottama — See Purī.

Puruṣottama — Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is the Supreme Person, meaning “the most exalted person.”

pūrva-rāga — Attachment before first meeting.

pūrva-rāga — the ecstasy of lovers before their meeting.

pūrva-vidhi — the injunction in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam against praising characteristics or activities of others.

Purvāṣādhā — one of the twenty-seven asterisms in Vedic astrology.

pushpanna rice — Lit., “flower-rice.” A Bengali rice pilaf, featured on special-occasion menus, containing saffron, nuts, and rice.

Puṣkara — a lake in western India dear to Lord Brahmā. At this place of pilgrimage is the only authorized temple of Lord Brahmā the world.

Puṣpa-ańjali — the ceremony of offering flowers to the Lord.

puṣpa-samādhi — A memorial in which the flowers worn by the spiritual master at his passing are kept.

Puṣpadanta — a name for the Supreme Lord meaning “He whose teeth are as white as jasmine flowers.” Also, a devotee of Lord Śiva renowned for his poetic skill.

Pūtanā — An infanticidal witch who entered Vraja disguised as a beautiful woman and offered the child Kṛṣṇa her poisoned breast milk, which He sucked out along with her life. Thus killed by Kṛṣṇa, Pūtanāwas elevated to Kṛṣṇa’s eternal service in the mood of a mother.

Pūtanā — a witch who was sent by Kaṁsa to appear in the form of a beautiful woman to kill baby Kṛṣṇa but who was killed by Him and granted liberation.

Pūtanā-mocana — Kṛṣṇa, “the deliverer of Pūtanā.”

putra — consciousness.


Krishna and Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra